America's Cup - Defenders and Challengers - Sport acquatici - NAUTICA REPORT
Sport acquatici / America's Cup - Defenders and Challengers
America's Cup - Defenders and Challengers

America's Cup - Defenders and Challengers

The competition for the oldest trophy in international sport dates back to 1851 when the yacht America sailed across the Atlantic to take on the best of the British fleet. The trophy that was first won in 1851 was then donated through a Deed of Gift to the New York Yacht Club, to be held as a challenge trophy for friendly competition between nations. The races haven’t always been friendly, and the competition is often fierce. But that’s to be expected with so much at stake, when ‘there is no second’ as Queen Victoria was told on the occasion of the first race over 160 years ago. 


The 35th America’s Cup marks the latest chapter in this great sporting story. The history of the America’s Cup has been defined by eras of Defenders and Challengers. The Defender is the yacht club (or its team) that won the previous America’s Cup and will look to defend their title. The Challenger is their opponent, and if the Challenger goes on to win then they become the Defender of the next America’s Cup. 


The America’s Cup is a challenge-based competition. If nobody challenges the Defender, there is no competition, although this has never happened- someone always wants to take it! When you win the America’s Cup you become the ‘defender’ and inherit the rights to the event. As defender you can determine the location and timing of the next competition. If you agree with the challenger(s), you can also determine the type of boat, the format of racing and most other rules around the event. If you can’t agree to terms with the challenger, you must race under conditions specified in the Deed of Gift, which was written in 1857. In the modern era of the Cup, this has only happened twice, in 1988 and 2010. 


For many years there was only one Challenger. From 1871 to 1967 the competition was between just two teams, a challenger and a defender. Beginning in 1970, multiple challengers were allowed, leading to the advent of the challenger series. This was the beginning of the end of the USA’s dominance as the challengers would race each other for the right to make the final, getting stronger through internal competition. But even with that boost, it would take 13 more years before Australia beat America to bring the trophy and the competition outside the USA for the first time. Since 1851 the America’s Cup has represented a pure pursuit of excellence. A winning team must excel at yacht design and engineering, sailing, athleticism, team building, and in modern times, sports-marketing, fundraising and even psychology! In its 166-year history, only four countries, represented by just six yacht clubs, have won the America’s Cup: the Unites States, Australia, New Zealand, and Switzerland.


Sir Peter Blake, the iconic skipper who led Team New Zealand to two Cup victories (1995, 2000) once wrote: "The America’s Cup is what it is because it is so difficult to win... It is not a game for the faint hearted. It is a game for those who are not scared of pitting themselves against the best that the world has to offer. It’s a game where winning is almost impossible, almost, but not impossible. And this is why it is worth fighting for. It is the difficulty that gives any challenge some sense. This is the essence of life itself."


In the 35th America’s Cup Defender ORACLE TEAM USA has five extremely worthy challengers: Artemis Racing, Emirates Team New Zealand, Groupama Team France, Land Rover BAR, and SoftBank Team Japan. Only one of these challengers will go on to face the Defender in the 35th America’s Cup Match presented by Louis Vuitton, as ORACLE TEAM USA attempt to become just the second team in history to win three consecutive America’s Cup matches. The battle is sure to be hard-fought - just as it should be.


Here are the Defenders and those who have challenged them for the oldest trophy in international sport:


Year Defender Country Challenger Country Won By
1851 15 yachts England America USA America
1870 Magic USA Cambria England Magic
1871 Columbia/Sappho USA Livonia England Columbia/Sappho
1876 Madeleine USA Countess of Dufferin Canada Madeleine
1881 Mischief USA Atalanta Canada Mischief
1885 Puritan USA Genesta England Puritan
1886 Mayflower USA Galatea England Mayflower
1887 Volunteer USA Thistle England Volunteer
1893 Vigilant USA Valkyrie II England Vigilant
1895 Defender USA Valkyrie III England Defender
1899 Columbia USA Shamrock Ireland Columbia
1901 Columbia USA Shamrock II Ireland Columbia
1903 Reliance USA Shamrock III Ireland Reliance
1920 Resolute USA Shamrock IV Ireland Resolute
1930 Enterprise USA Shamrock V N Ireland Enterprise
1934 Rainbow USA Endeavour England Rainbow
1937 Ranger USA Endeavour II England Ranger
1958 Columbia USA Sceptre England Columbia
1962 Weatherly USA Gretel Australia Weatherly
1964 Constellation USA Sovereign England Constellation
1967 Intrepid USA Dame Pattie Australia Intrepid
1970 Intrepid USA Gretel II Australia Intrepid
1974 Courageous USA Southern Cross Australia Courageous
1977 Courageous USA Australia Australia Courageous
1980 Freedom USA Australia Australia Freedom
1983 Liberty USA Australia II Australia Australia II
1987 Kookaburra III Australia Stars & Stripes '87 USA Stars & Stripes '87
1988 Stars & Stripes '89 USA New Zealand New Zealand Stars & Stripes
1992 America3 USA Il Moro di Venezia Italy America3
1995 Young America USA Team New Zealand New Zealand Team New Zealand
2000 Team New Zealand New Zealand Luna Rossa Italy Team New Zealand
2003 Team New Zealand New Zealand Alinghi Switzerland Alinghi
2007 Alinghi Switzerland Emirates Team New Zealand New Zealand Alinghi
2010 Alinghi 5 Switzerland USA 17 USA USA 17
2013 "17" USA Emirates Team New Zealand


Top photo H.Peterson

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Fonte: Wikipedia e Nautica Report
Titolo del: 05/03/2021 07:10

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